The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD)

In 2001, several African presidents came together to establish the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD). Subsequently, it was embraced as Africa’s premier development framework at a July 2001 summit meeting of African heads of state. The Partnership’s priorities are being discussed with the group of some industrialized countries totaling about eight. The discussions about this new vision have also been making rounds across Africa.

The Partnership has said that the attainment of long-term development goals in Africa depends on how determined the African people are to their own development. They must be ready to address the problem of being excluded in a globalized world and to tackle underdevelopment. Asides effort by Africans, the attainment of Africa’s long-term development goals also requires the assistance of the international community. New relationships must be formed to ensure that the non-African partners complement the effort of Africans in the attainment of the goals.

According to the Partnership, for Africa to have increased economic growth and reduce the number of people who live in poverty by about 50 percent, an annual resource gap of about $64 billion must be filled with porno. Although much of the needed resources will not come from the continent itself, Africa also needs to be mobilized by reducing government’s expenditures, ensuring better compliance to tax payment, reducing capital flight, and encouraging domestic investment and national savings.

The international community can also be of assistance by increasing the flow of development assistance. However, it is believed that the way such aid has been given overtime has created problems for the countries for whom the aid is given. It is being advocated that there is a need for significant reformation in the presentation of assistance to developing countries.

One of the ways that assistance may be granted Africa is by directing more foreign investment to Nigeria. However, the difficulty in this has been expressed given the equal problems usually encountered in bringing private capital flows to the continent. This aid can, therefore, be made one of the long-term plans for Africa. Another mode of assistance is by the provision of more debt reliefs for not only the countries which qualify for it and those outside the debt-relief framework.

In spite of help obtained from outside, however, the New Partnership has always maintained that Africa has the key to its development. The New Partnership has stated three conditions that must be in place for Africa to develop:

  • Enhanced corporate governance and better economic control
  • Peace, security and good political governance
  • Regional integration and corporation

Doing It Africa’s Way

Working together and with outside support, Africans can and will address their own challenges—in their own ways—for lasting results. That, in essence, was the message 22 of the continent’s leaders delivered to World Bank President James Wolfensohn and IMF Managing Director Horst Köhler on an unprecedented joint visit to Africa in late February.

The week-long trip, which included stops in Mali, Tanzania, Nigeria and Kenya, was a follow-up to Wolfensohn and Köhler’s commitment at the Prague 2000 Annual Meetings to put Africa at the center of their institutions’ activities. The World Bank and IMF heads set out to listen to how African leaders plan to address these challenges and to discuss how their institutions can best support them in their efforts.

The Bank’s vice president for the Africa Region, Callisto Madavo, and his IMF counterpart, G.E. Gondwe, accompanied their bosses on the trip. “What’s new from this trip,” Madavo told reporters in Washington Wednesday (transcript), “is that for the first time we have African leaders taking ownership of what they want to do in Africa.” He added that “a new partnership is emerging in which African leaders are telling us what they want to do, and in turn they are asking the Bank and the Fund as their external partners to provide support.”

That sentiment was echoed by the IMF’s Gondwe: “This time, there was a very, very, very clear understanding of what the problems are as well as enthusiasm of taking responsibilities for what has to be done.”

Among the key African-led initiatives is the recently-announced Millenium African Renaissance Plan (MAP). This is a program that Presidents Bouteflika of Algeria, Obasanjo of Nigeria, and Mbeki of South Africa were asked to develop by the Organization of African Unity, the G-77, and the Non Aligned Movement. It is an integrated African-led business plan to address issues of economic growth, encourage private investment, and invest in people. Developed by Africans, the program comes with the advantage of local ownership and homegrown ideas. The World Bank and IMF heads discussed the program with the three Heads of State championing it, along with Malian President Alpha Konare, who hosted the meeting in Bamako. It is on the drawing board, and both institutions plan to follow its development closely.

Madavo said there was broad agreement on what needs to be done if Africa is to move forward: reducing poverty through sustained economic growth, combating AIDS and investing in people, strengthening governance, improving the investment climate, resolving conflicts, and linking African economies to the global economy.

In meetings with Wolfensohn and Köhler, African leaders stressed that some MAP programs called for special attention. “HIV/AIDS was seen as one area where they wanted really to fast-track action and activities,” Madavo said. Africa is home to 70 percent of the 36 million people living with HIV or AIDS worldwide. In some African countries, more than one-third of the population is infected or has AIDS, dealing devastating blows to overall development. The World Bank stresses that political commitment to fight AIDS is key to curbing the epidemic (see story).

Another pressing issue is outside support. According to the World Bank’s African Development Indicators, a report out last month, official aid to Sub-Saharan Africa has been falling from $32 a head in 1990 to $19 by 1998 despite evidence of its effective development results in those countries with sound social and economic policies (see story). “Official aid levels need to pick up,” Madavo said at Wednesday’s briefing. He also appealed to rich countries to open their markets to African exports. World Bank research shows that tariff barriers cost African countries more than the they receive in official aid.

“The leaders of our two institutions felt that they should act as advocates for Africa, in terms of market access, official aid floors and continued efforts on debt relief, so that we can put together the resources that would enable the Africans to do what they told us they wanted to do,” Madavo said.

Wolfensohn and Köhler agreed with the African leaders they recently met with to come together again in a year to review progress on the issues they discussed, and to to see how much of this is translated into action. “The challenge now,” Madavo said, “is the next steps: What is going to happen over the next twelve months? Are we going to see real progress? This is going to depend very much on the Africans, but we in the World Bank and IMF are quite willing to roll up our sleeves to assist Africa, to make progress.”

Fighting Hunger And Malnutrition Through Children

October 16, 2001—An international coalition of partners, including the World Bank, today launch a global education campaign—Feeding Minds, Fighting Hunger—to mark World Food Day. The initiative is to encourage children and youth to get actively involved in creating a world free from hunger and malnutrition.
A global teach-in, including officials from the United Nations and governments, and celebrities from different walks of life, will be teaching children in more than 30 countries around the world this week about hunger, nutrition, and food insecurity.
“Today more than 800 million people go to bed not knowing if they will have enough to eat tomorrow,” said Ian Johnson, World Bank Vice President. “200 million of those are children under the age of five. We believe children can be powerful agents of change, both today and when they become the adults of tomorrow.”
Feeding Minds, Fighting Hunger has been developed by a broad coalition of international organizations, US organizations, and regional collaborators around the world. The initiative provides model lesson plans and resource materials on the topics:
• What is hunger and malnutrition and who are the hungry?
• Why are people hungry and malnourished?
• What can we do to help end hunger?
Teachers around the world will adapt and refine the materials, as necessary, to meet local needs and conditions. In subsequent years, lesson plans and activities from educators themselves will be solicited and shared so that students can begin to learn from each other about local problems of hunger and malnutrition and can share their ideas on how to solve these problems.
Hunger and malnutrition prevent the normal growth and development of children. They limit the learning capacity and productivity of both children and adults and, when widespread, are serious constraints to the social and economic development of communities and nations.
“An important step in developing and strengthening a society’s commitment to eliminating hunger and malnutrition,” said Robert L. Thompson, Director of the World Bank’s Rural Development Department, “is to ensure that children understand the causes and consequences of such problems, and more importantly, are motivated to seek ways that they can help to solve and prevent them.”
The Feeding Minds, Fighting Hunger Initiative has been developed as one of many efforts being undertaken worldwide to fight hunger and malnutrition.
“Eliminating hunger in today’s world is a question of political will and global leadership,” said Lynn Brown, from the World Bank’s Rural Development family, one of the founders of the Feeding Minds Fighting Hunger coalition. “By teaching today’s children about hunger we hope to build a generation of future world leaders committed to ensuring that noone goes hungry in their world.”
This week’s global teach-in will consist of a number of parallel events in countries around the world, including Nane Annan in New York, Ismail Serageldin in Alexandria, Egypt (Director of the Alexandria Library), Congressman Tony Hall in Washington DC, Christovan Buarque in Brasilia (former Governor and former Dean of Federal University), Reuben Villareale in Los Banos (Director of South-East Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture), Francis Lucas in Manila (Chairman of the Asian NGO Coalition for Agrarian Reform and Rural Development), Fitz Jackson in Jamaica (Minister  of Education), and Grace Akello in Kampala (Minister of Gender, Labor and Social Development).
In the Washington area, Per Pinstrup-Andersen, Director General of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the 2001 World Food Prize Laureate, taught the lessons at Thaddeus Stevens elementary school on Monday.
The lessons are available in 6 languages—English, French, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese, and Italian—and can also be obtained in hard copy (English only) or on CD.
The members of the Feeding Minds, Fighting Hunger coalition include: American Federation of Teachers; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; Future Harvest; International Education and Resource Network; International Food Policy Research Institute; National Peace Corps Association; Newsweek Magazine Education Program; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; U.S. National Committee for World Food Day; and the World Bank.